L-DOPA

L-DOPABackground L-DOPA, also known as Levodopa, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, is an amino acid and a direct precursor to dopamine and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is mainly taken up by the dopaminergic neurons that convert L-DOPA to dopamine and increases their dopamine levels in the body. L-DOPA or Levodopa remains the gold-standard therapeutic agent in…

NADH

NADHBackground NADH stands for “Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) + Hydrogen (H)” which is the active coenzyme form of Vitamin B3 (niacin). NADH is the reduced form of NAD+, and NAD+ is the oxidized form of NADH. It is a coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5′-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5′-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage.  NADH can occur naturally…

N-Acetyl L-Cysteine

N-Acetyl L-CysteineBackground N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC), also known as L-cysteine or N-Acetylcysteine or N-Acetyl-Cysteine, is a form of the amino acid L-cysteine. This supplement is so much valued for its ability to increase glutathione levels in the body, which is extremely important for lung function, brain function and liver detoxification. Due to a number of health…

Nefiracetam

NefiracetamBackground Nefiracetam, also known as DM-9384, N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidine-1-yl)-acetamide, is a new nootropic compound belonging to the racetam family. Though, originally Nefiracetam was derived from Piracetam, it actually shares more structural similarities to the supplement Aniracetam. Both nefiracetam and aniracetam are fat soluble racetam drugs for the purpose of memory enhancement as well as cognitive enhancement.…

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ)

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ)Background Pyrroloquinoline quinone, also known as PQQ or Methoxatin, is a natural compound and redox cofactor, capable of reducing oxidants, found in plant-based foods. PQQ is a powerful antioxidant and activates pathways in the body that can promote cellular energy metabolism. It helps support mitochondrial function (producing more of them and increasing their…

Cotinine

CotinineBackground Cotinine is an alkaloid found in tobacco and it is also the principal metabolite or breakdown product of nicotine. It is generally safe, non-addictive and has pharmacokinetic properties adequate for therapeutic use. People use cotinine because it has antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties and modulates the serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic systems.[1] Cotinine is a…