L-DOPA

L-DOPABackground L-DOPA, also known as Levodopa, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, is an amino acid and a direct precursor to dopamine and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is mainly taken up by the dopaminergic neurons that convert L-DOPA to dopamine and increases their dopamine levels in the body. L-DOPA or Levodopa remains the gold-standard therapeutic agent in…

Tyrosine

TyrosineBackground Tyrosine, also known as L-tyrosine, is a potent fragrant amino acid and a building block for proteins. Tyrosine is found in many high-protein foods such as cheese, chicken, and eggs. While supplementing, Tyrosine is a precursor to neurotransmitters, and is converted into L-DOPA and then into active catecholamines (adrenaline/epinephrine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine, and dopamine). These catecholamines are…

NADH

NADHBackground NADH stands for “Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) + Hydrogen (H)” which is the active coenzyme form of Vitamin B3 (niacin). NADH is the reduced form of NAD+, and NAD+ is the oxidized form of NADH. It is a coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5′-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5′-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage.  NADH can occur naturally…

Nefiracetam

NefiracetamBackground Nefiracetam, also known as DM-9384, N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidine-1-yl)-acetamide, is a new nootropic compound belonging to the racetam family. Though, originally Nefiracetam was derived from Piracetam, it actually shares more structural similarities to the supplement Aniracetam. Both nefiracetam and aniracetam are fat soluble racetam drugs for the purpose of memory enhancement as well as cognitive enhancement.…

Picamilon

PicamilonBackground Picamilon, also known as N-nicotinoyl-GABA, nicotinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid, pycamilon, and pikamilon, is a great nootropic drug formed by a synthetic combination of niacin molecule (vitamin B1) and GABA. It is a naturally occurring or synthetic substance that inhibits or retards oxidation reactions. This supplement is most commonly used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly…

Tryptophan

TryptophanBackground Tryptophan, also called L-tryptophan, is an essential amino acid that acts like a natural mood regulator, as it has the ability to help the body naturally produce and balance certain hormones. Though essential amino acids are necessary for various body functions, the body cannot produce these compounds internally. So it is essential to obtain…

Valerian

Valerian Background Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a flowering plant, the root of which has been used for centuries as an herbal remedy for its sedative and anxiety-reducing effects. Valerian roots were traditionally brewed for tea or eaten for relaxation and sedation purposes. But the current primary usage of valerian is to soothe anxiety or make…

Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha Background Popularly known as the king of Ayurvedic herbs, Ashwagandha has traditionally been used to strengthen the immune system, improve both mental and physical performance. In Sanskrit, Ashwagandha means “smell of horse” that refers to the strength and vigor of a stallion. Its botanical name is Withania Somnifera, and also known by several other…