L-carnosine

L-carnosineBackground L-carnosine is a dipeptide comprised of two amino acids such as β-alanine and L-histidine and is naturally found in muscle and heart tissues, the brain, and the liver. It has a powerful antioxidant function and protects and stabilizes cell membranes by inhibiting oxidative stress caused by free radicals. It also acts as a metal…

Tyrosine

TyrosineBackground Tyrosine, also known as L-tyrosine, is a potent fragrant amino acid and a building block for proteins. Tyrosine is found in many high-protein foods such as cheese, chicken, and eggs. While supplementing, Tyrosine is a precursor to neurotransmitters, and is converted into L-DOPA and then into active catecholamines (adrenaline/epinephrine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine, and dopamine). These catecholamines are…

NADH

NADHBackground NADH stands for “Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) + Hydrogen (H)” which is the active coenzyme form of Vitamin B3 (niacin). NADH is the reduced form of NAD+, and NAD+ is the oxidized form of NADH. It is a coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5′-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5′-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage.  NADH can occur naturally…

Nefiracetam

NefiracetamBackground Nefiracetam, also known as DM-9384, N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidine-1-yl)-acetamide, is a new nootropic compound belonging to the racetam family. Though, originally Nefiracetam was derived from Piracetam, it actually shares more structural similarities to the supplement Aniracetam. Both nefiracetam and aniracetam are fat soluble racetam drugs for the purpose of memory enhancement as well as cognitive enhancement.…

Picamilon

PicamilonBackground Picamilon, also known as N-nicotinoyl-GABA, nicotinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid, pycamilon, and pikamilon, is a great nootropic drug formed by a synthetic combination of niacin molecule (vitamin B1) and GABA. It is a naturally occurring or synthetic substance that inhibits or retards oxidation reactions. This supplement is most commonly used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly…

Phosphatidylcholine (PC)

Phosphatidylcholine (PC)Background Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most abundant phospholipids with a choline attachment found in cell membranes. Sometimes it’s believed that phosphatidylcholine and lecithin are used interchangeably, but they are actually different things. Your body uses phosphatidylcholine to make a brain chemical called acetylcholine. It is often used for some “brain-centered” conditions such…

DHA

DHA Background DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid, which is essential for normal brain function at all ages, including growth and development of the infant brain, as well as skin and retina health. It has 22 carbons in chain length with 6 double bonds. DHA has a great impact on your brain’s…