L-DOPA

L-DOPABackground L-DOPA, also known as Levodopa, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, is an amino acid and a direct precursor to dopamine and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is mainly taken up by the dopaminergic neurons that convert L-DOPA to dopamine and increases their dopamine levels in the body. L-DOPA or Levodopa remains the gold-standard therapeutic agent in…

Nefiracetam

NefiracetamBackground Nefiracetam, also known as DM-9384, N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidine-1-yl)-acetamide, is a new nootropic compound belonging to the racetam family. Though, originally Nefiracetam was derived from Piracetam, it actually shares more structural similarities to the supplement Aniracetam. Both nefiracetam and aniracetam are fat soluble racetam drugs for the purpose of memory enhancement as well as cognitive enhancement.…

Picamilon

PicamilonBackground Picamilon, also known as N-nicotinoyl-GABA, nicotinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid, pycamilon, and pikamilon, is a great nootropic drug formed by a synthetic combination of niacin molecule (vitamin B1) and GABA. It is a naturally occurring or synthetic substance that inhibits or retards oxidation reactions. This supplement is most commonly used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly…

Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol)

Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol)Background Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol) also known as Procyanidins, Pinus pinaster, Flavangenol and/or Oligopin, is commonly used as a nutritive supplement and thought to have strong antioxidant properties. Actually, Pycnogenol is a patented formulation of Pine Bark Extract which is standardized to 65-75% Procyanidin compounds by weight. Procyanidins are chain-like structures consisted…

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ)

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ)Background Pyrroloquinoline quinone, also known as PQQ or Methoxatin, is a natural compound and redox cofactor, capable of reducing oxidants, found in plant-based foods. PQQ is a powerful antioxidant and activates pathways in the body that can promote cellular energy metabolism. It helps support mitochondrial function (producing more of them and increasing their…

Taurine

TaurineBackground Taurine, also known as 2-aminoethane sulphonic acid or L-Taurine, is an organic acid containing sulfur in it. Though human body is able to produce taurine, it’s not in sufficient quantities. So, taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid for humans. It is found in foods, in the highest amounts in meats, and is a…